Heather Boushey, Ph.D., Senior Economist, Center for American Progress
Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means
on “Improving Efforts to Help Unemployed Americans Find Jobs”
Senior Economist, Center for American Progress Action Fund
February 10, 2010
Thank you, Chairman Davis and Ranking Member Doggett for inviting me here today to testify on how we can improve our efforts to help unemployed Americans find jobs. My name is Heather Boushey and I’m a Senior Economist with the Center for American Progress Action Fund.
The basic question for today’s hearing is: Are we doing everything we can to help the unemployed find jobs? We’ve made progress, but there is much more we can do to focus on generating jobs and bringing the unemployment rate back down.
In my testimony today, I will make three key points:
- The unemployment problem continues to be caused by too-little aggregate demand. If we want to help the unemployed, we need to address the output gap, the gap between what our economy is producing and what it could be producing at full employment.
- Today’s unemployment is not a structural problem. The Great Recession caused the record-high numbers of unemployed and the record-long spells of unemployment that we’ve seen.
- Funds spent on benefits and services designed to help the unemployed find new work have mitigated, not exacerbated the problem. The best economic evidence is that unemployment benefits and transitional jobs programs have helped, not hurt. What’s more, by boosting economic growth, the actions we’ve taken have actually made the long-term deficit smaller than it would have been without action.
Today’s high unemployment is a function of the reality that there simply aren’t enough jobs to go around because there is not sufficient demand in our economy. The shortfall in aggregate demand amounts to almost 6 percent of U.S. gross domestic product, primarily due to lost investment and lost employment, and resulting from the bursting of the real estate bubble and the ensuing Great Recession. This is the output gap that we need to fill in order to make our economy whole so that everyone who wants to work can find a job.
While the economy has been growing for six quarters now, businesses have not yet begun to ramp up hiring. High unemployment not only creates significant hardships for individual families, it continues to threaten the employment recovery: The unemployed can’t spend what they don’t earn, which is why high unemployment directly adds to our nation’s aggregate demand problem. Thus, there is a direct link between lack of hiring and future economic growth.
To address this, Congress should focus on three specific policy goals:
- Focus on maintaining the boost in aggregate demand. Investment—including investment in infrastructure—is the best way to ramp up employment now, while building the foundation for a high-productivity future.
- Stop adding to the problem of unemployment. In this recession, once someone has lost their job, they are facing historically low odds of finding a new job. Congress should seek to ensure that those who are working can stay in their jobs.
- Help the long-term unemployed beat the odds and find work. We know from decades of research that the displaced and long-term unemployed are more often at the bottom of the hiring queue and often suffer years of lowered earnings. Congress should consider reinvigorating the TANF Emergency Funds that put people to work in public/private partnerships.
And, I will note, at this point in the economic recovery, the costs of inaction continue to far outweigh the cost of action. While we need to keep our eye on a growing federal debt, addressing the scourge of long-term unemployment now will do more to cut future deficits than not.
Insufficient aggregate demand is hindering job creation
The unemployment problem continues to be caused by too-little aggregate demand. If we want to help the unemployed, we need to address the output gap, the gap between what our economy is producing and what it could be producing at full employment.
Gross domestic product, or GDP, grew at an annual rate of 3.2 percent in the fourth quarter of 2010, the sixth quarter of positive growth in a row. Much of this growth would not have happened without the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and other policies aimed at addressing the fallout from the financial crisis.
Yet, our economy continues to have what economists call “excess capacity,” which means there is not enough demand for all the goods and services we have the capacity to produce, and thus not enough demand for more workers. As of December 2010, capacity utilization was 76 percent, 4.6 percent below its average from 1972 to 2009. Excess capacity is a technical term that economists use to describe what Americans are currently seeing everyday around them—excruciatingly high unemployment, especially long-term unemployment, and the devastation it causes families and communities all around our nation.
Another way to measure excess capacity is the “output gap,” the gap between what our economy currently produces and what it would be producing if workers and the economy’s productive assets were to be used at full employment. The output gap is equal to almost 6 percent of our total gross domestic product. (see Figure 1) This is down from 7.5 percent when growth was at its nadir and just before the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was passed and signed into law.
And, we are now in another jobless recovery, while profits soar. From December 2008 to September 2010, profits in the nonfinancial corporate sector rose in inflation-adjusted terms by 92.0 percent before taxes and 93.3 percent after taxes. In September 2010, profits were at their highest point since at least September 2007, before the recession started. The nonfarm nonfinancial business sector is holding more than $1.9 trillion in cash, totaling 7.4 percent of total corporate assets in the third quarter of 2010—the highest level since the fourth quarter of 1959.
We can see the lack of urgency to hire due to lack of demand in a wide array of data. For example, the National Federation of Independent Businesses continues to report that its members—most of whom have fewer than 40 employees—see a lack of sales as the key factor that they are concerned about. This is an aggregate demand problem: businesses don’t see enough demand for products, which then hampers hiring. The Federal Reserve’s survey of senior loan officer also shows that while banks are lending for mergers and acquisitions, which often lead to job losses, they are lending for investment in plant and equipment that will create jobs and expanding economic opportunities.
Even though corporate America is flush with cash, investment is at the lowest level in more than five decades. So far in this business cycle, from December 2007 to December 2010, business investment has averaged 10.3 percent of gross domestic product, the lowest average for four decades. This low level of investment is not because of the cost or availability of capital, which continues to be at lows not seen since the 1960s. 
Without investment, our resources—the American people—languish in unemployment. A key challenge for policymakers is sorting out how to encourage investment.
Thus, while the recession ended in June 2009, for everyday Americans there hasn’t been a recovery. The private sector has been adding jobs every month for nearly a year and averaged 106,000 jobs per month over the past three months. This is a faster pace than economic recovery in the 2000s, but at this rate, we won’t reach 5 percent unemployment for decades. (see Figure 2) To get to 5 percent unemployment by November 2012, we’d need to add more than four times the number of jobs that our economy is adding now—551,000 jobs each month.
There are nearly five workers seeking a job for every opening available. (see Figure 3) In typical economic times—before this Great Recession—there was about one and a half job seekers for every job opening. Unemployment has stood at or above 9 percent for a record 21 months and economists predict it will remain this high at least through 2011. Nearly half of those unemployed (43.8 percent) have been job searching for at least six months.
High unemployment has long-term consequences for workers and their families, as well as our economy overall. The more than 6 million unemployed workers who have been searching for a new job for at least six months are unable to make use of their skills or contribute to our nation’s productive capacity. Consider these facts: Average mature workers who lose a stable job will see their earnings fall by 20 percent over 15 years to 20 years, and the labor market consequences of graduating from college in a bad economy are large, negative, and persistent.
Many workers may never find jobs at the level of the job they lost during this Great Recession. Recent data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics has found that as of last year at this time among those who were displaced from their job—permanently losing their job or laid off because their employer’s plant closed or business failed—between 2007 and 2009, just half (49 percent) were re-employed. This is lowest re-employment rate on record for the series, which began in 1984. Of those re-employed in full-time work, more than half (55 percent) were earning less than they had prior to job displacement.
The unemployed cannot spend what they don’t earn, a fact that threatens economic recovery. Families that receive unemployment insurance benefits typically spend these benefits rather than save them. To put some back of the envelope numbers on this, think of it this way: The typical worker brings home about $40,000 annually and nearly 14 million are out of work, so without unemployment benefits, our economy would shrink by about $600 billion. It’s that gap that unemployment insurance fills and why it’s critical to sustaining the economic recovery. And, why we can’t just fill the output gap with tax cuts. In a report for the Department of Labor, Wayne Vroman, economist at the Urban Institute, estimated that the unemployment insurance system closed about one-fifth (18.3 percent) of the shortfall in the nation’s gross domestic product during the Great Recession.
Funds spent on benefits and services designed to help the unemployed find new work have mitigated, not exacerbated the problem
Unemployment benefits are good for the economy and in high unemployment times like the current labor market, they do not hinder workers from finding employment. The argument that helping the long-term unemployed encourages them to remain unemployed rather than seek work ignores the reality that there are nearly five job seekers for every one job opening. Further, there have been a number of new research papers that show that unemployment benefits do not extend spells of unemployment in any economically meaningful way.
Research from the 1970s and 1980s that examined when people exit unemployment benefits found a “spike” in workers exiting just as their unemployment benefits expired. However, much of this research relied on data that only measured exit from benefits, not whether the individual actually became re-employed. A key paper in the early literature was by Harvard economist Lawrence Katz and University of Chicago economist Bruce Meyer who found that there were sharp increases in the rate at which workers with unemployment benefits exited unemployment for employment that coincided with the time when unemployment benefits were likely to lapse. However, there was no such spike for those who did not receive unemployment benefits.
However, in testimony before the U.S. Congressional Joint Economic Committee in April 2010, Katz himself noted that “much of the responsiveness in this analysis came from firms and industries using temporary layoffs and the sensitivity of recall dates to unemployment insurance benefits.” Temporary layoffs are less common now than during the 1970s and early 1980s downturns. More recent research suggests only modest effects of unemployment benefits on the timing of finding employment:
- San Francisco Federal Reserve economists Rob Valletta and Katherine Kuang analyzed data on unemployed individuals during the Great Recession and calculated that, in the absence of extended benefits, the unemployment rate would have been about 0.4 percentage points lower at the end of 2009, or about 9.6 percent rather than 10 percent.
- Using panel data from Austria, University of Berkeley economists David Card and Raj Chetty found that “fewer than 1 percent of jobless spells have an ending date that is manipulated to coincide with the expiration of UI benefits.” Based on existing empirical research using U.S. data, Raj Chetty noted that a 10 percent increase in the value of UI benefits increases unemployment durations by four to eight percent.
- Economists David Card and Phillip B. Levine found that additional weeks of unemployment benefits only increased the fraction of workers who exhausted—that is, used up all unemployment benefits available to them—by one to three percentage points, and had the program run long enough to affect claimants from the ﬁrst day of their spell, the average recipient would have collected regular beneﬁts for just one extra week.
Other empirical work shows how unemployment benefits give workers the time to search for a new job. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Economist Jon Gruber found that unemployment insurance smoothes consumption for households with an unemployed worker, which helps them maintain their spending even in the face of a job loss. UC Berkeley economist Raj Chetty estimated that 60 percent of difference in the length of time workers spend unemployed if they have unemployment benefits is due to a liquidity effect—a constraint on household finances because they have little access to cash in the short-term—rather than to reduced incentives to search for a new job.
Unemployment is not a structural problem
While some groups have been harder hit than others, today’s unemployment is not a structural problem. In May of 2007, the unemployment rate was 4.5 percent. Just over a year and a half later, the private sector was shedding 700,000 to 800,000 jobs per month and unemployment continues to linger at 9 percent. For the unemployment problem to be structural, it would have to be the case that our nation’s workers and employers all of a sudden become mismatched due to some new set of technological advances that made 1 in 10 workers instantaneously obsolete. There is no evidence that this has been the case in the years since 2007.
There are a number of ways to think about this. First, if today’s high unemployment were largely about shifting workers out of the sectors hardest hit by the bursting of the housing bubble—primarily construction—job losses would have to be concentrated there. But, the distribution of job losses due to the Great Recession has been fairly broad and widespread across industries, contradicting the idea that there are one or two sectors that U.S. workers need to transition out of. Manufacturing, professional and business services, transportation and warehousing, financial activities, leisure and hospitality, and information services have all lost a larger share of jobs than construction.
Further, if unemployment was structural, the money pumped into the economy through the extraordinary monetary and fiscal policies enacted over the past few years would have led to higher prices. The logic is that if more money were chasing a limited pool of workers or capacity, then prices should go up. Yet, in fact what we’ve seen is the opposite. Over the past year, prices have risen by less than one and a half percent, below what the Federal Reserve considers the target rate of two percent.
If the problem with unemployment were structural, the primary policy lever to address this is education and training. There are many reasons for policymakers to be concerned about the skills of the U.S. labor force: American students are consistently behind their academic peers internationally. According the U.S. Department of Education, out of 30 peer countries, students in the United States were ranked 30th for math, 23rd for science, and 17th for reading. However, even if unemployment was a structural problem and training and education could solve it, this is not a solution that can address our immediate high unemployment. Setting up those programs and getting workers the skills they need will take time, and our economy will not see the fruits of those endeavors for years. Investing in education is critical for our economy, but it cannot solve our current unemployment problem.
Addressing aggregate demand has shown good results
Congress has taken important steps to encourage private-sector job creation. The Congressional Budget Office credits the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, or ARRA, signed into law in February 2009 with saving or creating 1.4 to 3.6 million jobs in 2010 and they estimate that 2.6 million jobs will be saved or created in 2011. The Recovery Act kept teachers in schools and police officers on their beats, even as tax revenues fell. It kept money flowing into the pockets of the long-term unemployed, which in turn has not only helped those individual families hardest hit by the Great Recession, but also helped keep dollars flowing into their local communities. It helped unemployed workers access health care, undoubtedly mitigating the well-documented negative health effects of unemployment.
Economists Alan Blinder and Mark Zandi estimated that the Recovery Act and other fiscal policies have saved or created 2.7 million jobs. and without them unemployment would stand at 11 percent and job losses would have totaled 10 million. On top of this, they estimate that if nothing had been done to address the financial crisis—no Troubled Asset Relief Program, no bailouts of American International Group Inc, and no investment in the auto industry—our economy would have 5 million fewer jobs than we do today and unemployment would be sharply higher, at 12.5 percent.
Even with the success of the Recovery Act, there have been clear indications since 2009 that in order to fill in the output gap and lower unemployment, Congress will need to focus on policies that raise, not lower, aggregate demand. As Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke noted this January in testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on the Budget:
Our nation’s fiscal position has deteriorated appreciably since the onset of the financial crisis and the recession. To a significant extent, this deterioration is the result of the effects of the weak economy on revenues and outlays, along with the actions that were taken to ease the recession and steady financial markets. In their planning for the near term, fiscal policymakers will need to continue to take into account the low level of economic activity and the still-fragile nature of the economic recovery (emphasis added).
In this Great Recession, sustained government spending until the recovery hits its full stride is the best—and only—option to push the unemployment rate down. Because the Great Recession was preceded by a massive financial crisis, we knew from day one that it was likely to be deeper and more protracted than more recent recessions. We’ve also known for over two years now that the Federal Reserve has no more room to lower interest rates to boost demand.
In other recent recessions, lowering interest rates was sufficient to push the economy toward sustainable growth, but this time it’s not possible. The last recession that brought us double-digit unemployment, in the 1980s, was caused by tightening of monetary policy by the Federal Reserve under Chairman Paul Volcker as they were trying to address rampant inflation. The Federal Funds Rate hit nearly 20 percent in 1981, which stopped inflation but then also gave the Federal Reserve a great deal of room to lower rates to encourage economic activity.
To boost growth, the Federal Reserve has pursued quantitative easing, using the proceeds from the central bank’s mortgage bond portfolio to buy long-term government debt. That is, they are using unorthodox methods of pumping money into an economy and working to lower interest rates that central bankers do not usually control. Their effect is the same as printing money in vast quantities, but without ever turning on the printing presses. The Federal Reserve’s response to the Great Recession has been effective in lowering interest rates and addressing the crisis in the banking system, however, it has not yet successfully increased investment or led to sufficient job creation.
It is important to remember that by taking actions to avert greater unemployment, we averted a bigger federal deficit. The steps taken to shore up our economy have ended up being a better investment for jobs and for the deficit than doing nothing at all. (see Figure 4) Economists Blinder and Zandi estimated that had Congress done nothing, the deficit would have ballooned to more than 2.5 times as large as it did, hitting more than $2 trillion by the end of the 2010 fiscal year, $2.6 trillion in fiscal year 2011, and $2.25 trillion in fiscal year 2012. In actuality, they estimate that by the end of the 2010 fiscal year, the federal budget deficit will be $1.4 trillion and it will fall to $1.15 trillion in fiscal year 2011 and $900 billion in fiscal year 2012.
The most important reason for the rise in the deficit is rising unemployment and falling incomes. In 2009, federal receipts were $419 billion below 2008 levels, a 17 percent drop, which was the largest decline from one year to the next in more than 70 years. Individual income tax receipts decreased by 20 percent, and corporate income tax revenues plummeted by more than 54 percent, which means corporations paid less than half in taxes than they paid the year before.
Yet there is a rising chorus of voices singing the praises of deficit reduction over the benefits of saving our economy through expansionary fiscal policies. Once our economy recovers, of course, the deficit must be addressed, but until unemployment begins to fall and the economic recovery is firmly in train, these voices push us in the wrong direction. Their rhetoric argues that we not burden the next generation with unsustainable debts, but the reality is this: by not boosting demand for goods and services by helping existing excess capacity—the nearly 14 million currently-unemployed workers in our country—millions of workers will find no means of support today and will see their economic future grows dimmer by the week.
Unlike any point in the decades since before World War II, the challenge of laying the foundation for a strong economy lies with you and this body of government. These are unusual times because it continues to be the case that fiscal policy is the primary lever that the federal government has at its disposal to spur economic growth. I urge you to consider that these extraordinary times call for extraordinary action—continued spending to aid to the long-term unemployed. The sense of imminent collapse of our financial sector, thankfully, now appears behind us, but the fallout for our economy remains and it is just as dramatic and continues to require bold steps.
Congress should focus on three specific policy goals:
- Focus on maintaining the boost in aggregate demand. Investment—including investment in infrastructure—is the best way to ramp up employment now, while building the foundation for a high-productivity future.
- Stop adding to the problem of unemployment. In this recession, once someone has lost their job, they are facing historically low odds of finding a new job. There are ways Congress can act to keep people in the jobs they have now.
- Help the long-term unemployed beat the odds and find work. We know from decades of research that the displaced and long-term unemployed are more often at the bottom of the hiring queue and often suffer years of lowered earnings. Specifically, Congress should consider reinvigorating the TANF Emergency Funds that put people to work in public/private partnerships.
Let’s be clear: An overgrown financial sector, bloated on the real estate bubble it helped create, threw our economy into crisis. Moving forward, policymakers must continue to ensure that financial markets are focused on making funds available to promote investment in America, not just speculation and dividends for those in the financial services industry. We need vibrant capital markets so that innovative companies can access funds to invest; we do not need innovative financial products to allow Wall Street to siphon off these funds for its own gain.
Boost aggregate demand
Investment is the key to creating jobs now and building the foundation for a high-productivity future. The American Society of Civil Engineers estimates that we need to spend at least $2.2 trillion over the next five years just to repair our crumbling infrastructure. This doesn’t even include things like high-speed rail, mass transit, and renewable energy investments we need to free ourselves from foreign oil and climate change.
In January, the Commerce Department reported that private business investment in overall buildings, factories, and equipment grew only $18 billion, while investment in new buildings and factories grew only $700 million, adding just 0.13 percent to the growth in U.S. gross domestic product. As CAP economist Adam Hersh put it, “The tepid investment recovery is particularly troubling, given that in the 2001 to 2007 business cycle expansion, we’d already experienced the slowest investment growth rate since World War II. Making matters worse, much of that investment was misallocated into nonproductive residential and commercial real estate.”
Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke was right last week when he said the recovery is not truly established until the unemployment rate returns to a normal level. Bringing unemployment down will require both increased investment, which is currently lower than in past recoveries, and a strong middle class that has the jobs and incomes to maintain consumption. Policy makers should continue to encourage investment in infrastructure and in the skills of our nation’s workforce and make sure that these investments create good jobs, the kind that will rebuild our middle class.
The Obama administration had proposed a $50 billion fund, which is a good start, but we need to invest more to both address today’s jobs problem and lay the foundation for long-term economic growth. Infrastructure has been a traditionally bipartisan issue and one that hopefully this Congress can build a bridge across the aisle to address.
The unemployment insurance system and other automatic stabilizers must remain in working order. Filling the gap in demand will require continued attention to one of the key sources of demand: high unemployment. Most of the state’s unemployment insurance trust funds are insolvent as 30 states’ and the U.S. Virgin Islands owing a total of $43 billion and the debt could rise to $90 billion by the end of 2013. The loans from the federal government will require that in 2011, 25 states must pay an extra $2 billion in federal unemployment taxes levied on employers, an increase of 30 percent over 2010.
We all have an interest in not seeing the cost of hiring workers rise as firms struggle to ramp up hiring, but we also need to make sure that the unemployment insurance system has the integrity to continue to act as an important automatic stabilizer. Recent analysis shows that this system generated significant positive economic effects and kept unemployment from rising to more than 11 percent. 
Stop adding to the problem: If someone has a job, help them keep it
One of the striking things about the Great Recession is that the market for job seekers is the worst in generations. The best thing to do for the long-term unemployed is to make sure our economy stops creating unemployment. A key piece of that is to keep recovery dollars flowing until the economy recovers. Here are three tested policies to focus on:
Aid to the states. Reductions in government spending are not only dragging down U.S. economic growth, but also reducing overall employment. Reductions in government spending pulled down U.S. economic growth by 0.1 percent over the fourth quarter of 2010. The recession has had a devastating impact on states’ fiscal health. Unlike the federal government, states cannot deficit spend and have to make difficult choices amid declining revenue and a weak economy. According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, “Thus far some 44 states and the District of Columbia are projecting budget shortfalls totaling $125 billion for fiscal year 2012.” If nothing is done, this will be the worst year on record for state budgets and it comes on top of sharp lay-offs over the past years.
This has negatively impacted the job market: In January, local governments shed another 10,000 jobs, for a total of 366,000 since their peak in September 2008, nearly three-quarters of which were jobs held by women. State governments shed 2,000 jobs in January and 69,000 since their peak in September 2008. As of January 2011, 39 percent of those unemployed who had jobs in the public administration industry have been out of work and searching for a job for at least six months.
Simply put, schools are laying off teachers, public universities are trimming their staffs, and community colleges are cutting back. These cutbacks are one of the most unfortunate outcomes of the fiscal crisis precipitated by the Great Recession and constitute not just lost jobs now, but also eventually worse educational outcomes for tens of millions of students across the country—consequences that will have long-term negative effects on the economy.
Helping state and local governments and school districts boasts clear advantages over many of the alternatives. First, the added resources will immediately and directly boost employment in a very hard hit sector. Distinct from the private sector, job cuts are being forced exclusively by impossible budget situations, not by a lack of demand for services. Ameliorating those budget dilemmas will result in more jobs. Second, additional aid will prevent further cuts to state and local education systems—investments that will pay dividends far beyond the current recovery.
Work-sharing. When businesses need to cut back on staffing, they have two options: lay off workers or reduce hours. There are strong incentives in our labor market to simply lay off workers—benefits are often tied to the worker, not their hours.
Currently, 17 states have opted into the “short-time compensation” or “work-sharing” program within their unemployment insurance system, which allows workers to receive partial benefits from the unemployment insurance system if their hours have been reduced, not just if they lost their job or their pay is reduced. The unemployment insurance system also provides partial benefits to workers whose wages have been cut (including due to working part-time), but the thresholds are fairly low. The unemployment benefit is typically equal to the difference between the weekly benefit amount and earnings, and all states disregard some earnings as an incentive to take short-time work. Mark Zandi estimates that the multiplier for the short-term compensation program would be relatively high: for every dollar spent on the program, $1.69 would be added to our economy’s output.
Short-term compensation or work-sharing proposals have been garnering wider support over the past year. New evidence from Germany shows that “short-term work programs,” which encourage employers to reduce hours rather than lay off workers, can significantly reduce unemployment. While output fell more in Germany during the Great Recession than it did in the United States (through winter 2010), the German unemployment rate actually decreased, while the U.S. unemployment rate has risen 4 percentage points. Recent research by the International Monetary Fund points to the importance of the massive expansions to Germany’s short-term work program (Kurzarbeit), which led to hours reductions but not unemployment.
These findings are not directly applicable in the United States as the program was implemented in largely union settings, but it should encourage Congress to examine this kind of policy. Congress should promote nationwide implementation of the short-term compensation program by encouraging the Department of Labor to provide clear guidance on the program and encourage more states to adopt it. Congress could adopt a technical amendment as part of an extension of the federal Emergency Unemployment Compensation program or another vehicle. Enactment of an amendment would send a clear signal that states should adopt short-time compensation laws as an option for employers.
Help the unemployed beat the odds and find a new job
The literature is clear: The long-term unemployed suffer greater and are at risk of never regaining as strong a foothold in the labor market. Many who cannot find work will end up moving from unemployment benefits to Social Security Disability Insurance, an even greater likelihood if unemployment benefits for the long-term are not restored. Especially for younger workers, the lifetime costs of unemployment can be startlingly high. There are ways that Congress has and can continue to help:
Reinstate TANF Emergency Funds. This program was funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act but expired on September 30, 2010. It led to partnerships with the business community to create 250,000 new jobs for low-income and long-term unemployed workers. Extending this program for another year would continue to create thousands of jobs for long-term unemployed workers. The TANF Emergency Fund gave states over $1 billion to operate subsidized jobs programs and promoted public-private partnerships. This program was implemented in states with both Democratic and Republic governors, with much success. Texas, for example, created nearly 40,000 jobs with this program.
Recent polling shows that 8-in-10 voters favor Congress continuing to fund the TANF Emergency Program, which was described in the poll as “states partnering with the private sector to create temporary subsidized jobs to move low-income parents from welfare to work.” Congress should refund this program and put people back to work.
Promote successful vocational programs. There are successful models for how community colleges can partner with the private sector to create vocational programs that work. To train the next generation of workers, we need to make sure that our educational institutions are adequately addressing the real training needs of employers. One way to do this is through the “new vocationalism” movement, which seeks to integrate vocation and employment-oriented goals in academic educational programs. A key way that this has been happening around the country is through partnerships between community colleges and businesses.
There are a variety of success cases and recommendations that policymakers “promote systematic innovation by reviewing federal, state, and local finance and regulation to facilitate the ‘good practice’ innovations.”  Federal and state policy makers can ensure that formula funding streams and regulations do not stifle good practice when partners are building an alternative education program; use competitive grant funds to promote partnerships that emphasize sustainable, systemic change; and continue to emphasize desired student outcomes to keep community colleges and partners focused on innovation. Policymakers should also look at what tools and information we need to really measure the value of good practice and gather the data needed to make it an evidence-based best practice.
Invest more in national service programs such as AmeriCorps, VISTA, YouthBuild, and the youth service and conservation corps, which could create full-time positions for young people. These investments would in most cases be paid for jointly, by public and private resources. Investing $830 million in fiscal year 2011 could create 60,000 jobs. Most of these jobs would be in nonprofit organizations.
Invest in a summer youth employment program. The summer youth employment program does more than provide hundreds of thousands of youth with seasonal employment opportunities; it has the potential to change the long-term employment prospects of disadvantaged youth who might otherwise by disconnected from the labor market. Youth get the experience and support they need to access entry-level jobs as they transition to adulthood through training in hard and soft jobs skills and exposure to services offered by community organizations.
Improve employment services. Research shows that employment services and job search assistance can be helpful to unemployed workers. Currently, the Workforce Investment Act systems are not designed to stay with a worker over time; they are instead focused on quick job placement. For the long-term unemployed, it may be challenging to get them into a job quickly and Congress should provide the one-stops with flexibility and funding to provide professional career counseling services.
Improvements to employment services can be done through WIA and Wagner-Pizer Act funding. One idea is to require that one-stop career center partners include opportunities to provide career guidance across agencies as part of their Memorandum of Understanding for co-location at the center. The Department of Labor’s new website, www.mynextmove.org, seeks to help workers identify career paths and skills necessary, though an interactive web-based tool.
I’d like to come back to the question of: Are we doing everything we can to help the unemployed find jobs? Earlier this week, in the Financial Times, Congressman Darrell Issa (R-CA) made the case that “President Barack Obama’s $814bn economic expansion has woefully failed to reach each of its self-imposed targets.” The economy has not come back to full employment, which is clearly a goal that we all share. But the reality is that employment has not returned not because we acted together as a nation to address high unemployment, but because we did not act enough.
The nearly 14 million people out of work today would be better off if we used our nation’s resources to spur, not halt, economic growth. We now know that the perception of prosperity in the 2000s was in many ways a mirage. The housing bubble and financial innovations and the Great Recession masked deeper structural problems. The housing bubble, rapid growth of the real estate and financial sectors, and debt-fueled growth during the Bush era masked what were otherwise largely negative trends for American workers.
We continue to live in one of the richest nations on the planet. We have the resources to solve problems that we decide to solve. We’ve had enough money to give billions away in tax cuts for the very wealthiest among us. And yet, we seem to have lost our can-do conviction that the economy can indeed improve, that we can again create good jobs for all who need them. There appears to be a growing acceptance that slow job creation is “just the way things are.’’ A growing fatalism convinces us that the economy will be stuck at the bottom for quite some time.
These diminished expectations aren’t merely evidence of a national funk; they also pose a real threat to our economy—not just by making businesses and consumers less willing to invest in the future, but also by letting elected officials off the hook. We need greater investment to bring down unemployment, but the widespread idea that we are doomed to austerity gives policymakers an excuse not to tackle the problem.
In closing, I would like to underscore the urgency of Congress continuing to address long-term unemployment. In May 2010, Christine Romer, then-chair of the Council of Economic Advisers said:
It would be penny-wise but pound-foolish to try to deal with our long-run problem by tightening fiscal policy immediately or foregoing additional emergency spending to reduce unemployment. Immediate fiscal contraction would inevitably nip the nascent economic recovery in the bud—just as fiscal and monetary contraction in 1936 and 1937 led to a second severe recession before the recovery from the Great Depression was complete. And nothing would be more damaging to our fiscal future than a protracted recession and permanently higher unemployment.
Addressing the deficit is certainly an important concern, but economists are largely in agreement that cutting back on government spending before the recovery has fully taken hold is not the right policy. In fact, it could exacerbate unemployment. Record-high long-term unemployment will remain until employers begin hiring in much larger numbers than they are today. Because we are in the unusual situation of a recession following a financial crisis and because policymakers have already tapped into expansionary monetary policy as far as they can, using the “power of the purse” is necessary to push the economy into a self-sustaining recovery. If we do that and lay the foundation for a strong recovery, we will be in a much better situation to address the deficit in the years to come.
 Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2011. “National Income and Product Accounts Table 1.1.1.” (http://www.bea.gov/national/nipaweb/TableView.asp?SelectedTable=1&FirstYear=2009&LastYear=2010&Freq=Qtr [January 25, 2011]).
 “Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization: Table G.17.” (Washington DC: Federal Reserve Statistical Release, 2010), available at http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/g17/current/default.htm.
 Adam S. Hersh and Isha Vij. 2011. “Economic Growth Continues, but Too Slowly to Secure Recovery: Policy Consistency Targeting Jobs is Necessary.” Center for American Progress. (http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2011/01/december_jobs.html [January 25, 2011]).
 Christian Weller. “Economic Snapshot for January 2011.” (Washington DC: Center for American Progress, 2011), available at http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2011/01/pdf/jan11_econ_snapshot.pdf.
 Adam S. Hersh and Christian E. Weller. “Measuring Future U.S. Competitiveness: U.S. Productivity and Innovation Snapshot.” (Washington, DC: Center for American Progress, 2011), available at http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2011/02/pdf/productivity_snapshot.pdf.
 William C. Dunkelberg and Holly Wade. “NFIB Small Business Economic Trends.” (Washington DC: National Federation of Independent Business, 2011), available at http://www.nfib.com/Portals/0/PDF/sbet/sbet201102.pdf.
 Federal Reserve. “Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey on Bank Lending Practices.” (Washington DC: The Federal Reserve Board, 2011), available at http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/snloansurvey/201102/table2.htm.
 Hersh and Weller, “Measuring Future U.S. Competitiveness: U.S. Productivity and Innovation Snapshot”.
 Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment Status of the civilian population by sex and age, (U.S. Department of Labor, 2010), Hersh and Vij, “Economic Growth Continues, but Too Slowly to Secure Recovery: Policy Consistency Targeting Jobs is Necessary”.
 Hersh and Vij, “Economic Growth Continues, but Too Slowly to Secure Recovery: Policy Consistency Targeting Jobs is Necessary”.
 Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey.” (Washington: U.S. Department of Labor, 2010), available at http://data.bls.gov:8080/PDQ/servlet/SurveyOutputServlet;jsessionid=6230b1db2685c2223617.
 Heather Boushey. “Rebuilding the middle class: Creating jobs should be a top priority.” (Washington DC: MarketWatch, 2011), available at http://www.marketwatch.com/story/creating-jobs-should-be-a-top-priority-2011-02-04.
 Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Employment Status of the civilian population by sex and age”, Hersh and Vij, “Economic Growth Continues, but Too Slowly to Secure Recovery: Policy Consistency Targeting Jobs is Necessary”.
 Henry Farber. “What Do We Know About Job Loss in the United States? Evidence from the Displaced Workers Survey, 1984-2004.”Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago: Economic Perspectives 2 (2005).
 Lisa B Kahn. “The Long-Term Labor Market Consequence of Graduating from College in a Bad Economy.”Labour Economics 17 (2010): 303-16.
 Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2010. “Worker Displacement: 2007-2009.” U.S. Department of Labor. (http://www.bls.gov/news.release/disp.nr0.htm [February 6, 2011]).
 Author’s calculations from U.S. Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics.
 Wayne Vroman, “The Role of Unemployment Insurance As an Automatic Stabilizer During a Recession” (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 2010).
 Lawrence F. Katz and Bruce D. Meyer. “The Impact of the Potential Duration of Unemployment Benefits on the Duration of Unemployment.”Journal of Public Economics 41 (1990): 45-72.
 Lawrence F. Katz, “Long-Term Unemployment in the Great Recession,” testimony before the Joint Economic Committee of the US Congress, “Consequences and Solutions Long-Term Unemployment: Causes,” 2010, available at http://jec.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?a=Files.Serve&File_id=e1cc2c23-dc6f-4871-a26a-fda9bd32fb7e.
 Rob Valletta and Katherine Kuang. “Extended Unemployment and UI Benefits.” (San Francisco: Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, 2010), available at http://www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2010/el2010-12.html.
 David Card, Raj Chetty, and Andrew Weber, “The Spike at Benefit Exhaustion: Leaving the Unemployment System or Starting a New Job?” (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2007).
 David Card and Phillip Levine, B. “Extended benefits and the duration of UI spells: evidence from the New Jersey extended benefit program.”Journal of Public Economics 78 (2000): 107-38.
 Jonathan Gruber. “The Wealth of the Unemployed.” (Cambridge: MIT Department of Economics, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000), available at http://econ-www.mit.edu/files/102.
 Raj Chetty, “Moral Hazard vs. Liquidity and Optimal Unemployment Insurance” (Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2008).
 Bureau of Labor Statistics. “The Employment Situation – January 2011.” (Washington DC: Department of Labor, 2011), available at http://bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf.
 Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Consumer Price Index – December 2010.” (Washington DC: Department of Labor, 2011), available at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/cpi.pdf.
 Holly Xie, Howard L. Fleischman, Paul J. Hopstock, Marisa P. Pelczar, and Brooke E. Shelley, “”Highlights From PISA 2009: Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context” (Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, 2010).
 U.S. Congressional Budget Office. “Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output from January 2010 Through March 2010.” (Washington DC 2010), available at http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/115xx/doc11525/05-25-ARRA.pdf.
 Alan Blinder and Mark Zandi. “How the Great Recession Was Brought to An End.” (Washington, DC: Economy.com, 2010), available at http://www.economy.com/mark-zandi/documents/End-of-Great-Recession.pdf.
 A wide array of economists agree with this sentiment. See:Mark Zandi, “Using Unemployment Insurance to Help Americans Get Back to Work: Creating Opportunities and Overcoming Challenges,” testimony before the US Congress, Senate Committee on Finance, April 14, 2010.;Lawrence H. Summers. “Reflections on Fiscal Policy and Economic Strategy.” (Baltimore: Remarks at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, 2010), available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/nec/speeches/fiscal-policy-economic-strategy.
 Ben S. Bernanke, “The Economic Outlook and Monetary and Fiscal Policy,” testimony before the Committee on the Budget, US Senate, 2011, available at http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/testimony/bernanke20110107a.htm.
 Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff. “The Aftermath of Financial Crises.”American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings) 99 (2) 2009): 466-72.
 Heather Boushey, “Keep the Money Flowing,” Room for Debate, June 24, 2010, available at http://roomfordebate.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/06/24/can-obama-create-more-jobs-soon/?scp=1&sq=boushey&st=cse#heather.
 Federal Reserve. 2011. “Federal Funds Rate.” Federal Reserve Statistical Release. (http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/H15/data.htm [February 6, 2011]).
 Blinder and Zandi, “How the Great Recession Was Brought to An End”.
 Michael Linden, “Breaking Down the Deficit” (Washington, DC: Center for American Progress, 2009).
 “America’s Infrastructure Report Card.” (Washington DC: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2009), available at http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/sites/default/files/RC2009_full_report.pdf.
 Adam Hersh. “The Missing Ingredient in Our Recovery: Investment Is Central to Continued Growth and Competitiveness.” (Washington DC: Center for American Progress, 2011), available at http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2011/01/recovery_gdp.html.
 Ben S. Bernanke. “The Economic Outlook and Macroeconomic Policy.” (Washington DC: Speech at the National Press Club, 2011), available at http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/bernanke20110203a.htm.
 Michael Cooper and Mary Williams Walsh. “U.S. Bills States $1.3 Billion in Interest Amid Tight Budgets.” (New York: The New York Times, 2011), available at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/15/us/politics/15stimulus.html.
 U.S. Department of Labor
 Wayne Vroman. “The Role of Unemployment Insurance As an Automatic Stabilizer During a Recession.” (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 2010), available at http://wdr.doleta.gov/research/keyword.cfm?fuseaction=dsp_resultDetails&pub_id=2447&mp=y.
 Elizabeth McNichol, Phil Oliff, and Nicholas Johnson. “States Continue to Feel Recession’s Impact.” (Washington DC: Center for Budget and Policy Priorities, 2011), available at http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=711.
 Boushey, “Rebuilding the middle class: Creating jobs should be a top priority”.
 Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2011. “Current Population Survey.” Department of Labor. (http://www.bls.gov/webapps/legacy/cpsatab1.htm [February 3, 2011]).
 Employment and Training Administration. “Comparison of State Unemployment Laws.” (Washington DC: Department of Labor, 2009), available at http://workforcesecurity.doleta.gov/unemploy/uilawcompar/2009/comparison2009.asp.
 Mark Zandi, “The Impact of the Recovery Act on Economic Growth,” testimony before the US Congress, Joint Economic Committee, October 29, 2009, available at http://www.economy.com/mark-zandi/documents/JEC-Fiscal-Stimulus-102909.pdf.
Mark Zandi, testimony before the Senate Finance Committee, “Using Unemployment Insurance to Help Americans Get Back to Work: Creating Opportunities and Overcoming Challenges,” April 14, 2010, available at http://finance.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/041410mztest.pdf.;Paul Krugman. “Free to Lose.” (New York: The New York Times, 2009), available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/13/opinion/13krugman.html.;Kevin A. Hassett, “Prospects for Employment Growth: Is Additional Stimulus Needed?,” testimony before the House Committee on Financial Services, February 23, 2010, available at http://financialservices.house.gov/media/file/hearings/111/hassett.pdf.. Dean Baker has also proposed a new tax credit to encourage shorter workweeks: Dean Baker. “Job Sharing: Tax Credits to Prevent Layoffs and Stimulate Employment.” (Washington DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research, 2009), available at http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/job-sharing-tax-credit-2009-10.pdf.2009).
 “World Economic Outlook: Rebalancing Growth.” (Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2010), available at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/pdf/text.pdf.
 The short-term compensation program was established as a temporary program in 1982 and made permanent in 1992. However, there were discrepancies in the 1992 legislation that created an “administrative muddle” about what exactly states are allowed to do. The 1982 legislation had required that any employer who participated must continue health insurance and retirement benefits, and that the program must have the consent of bargaining representatives in unionized shops. The 1992 legislation, however, did not include those provisions, which has led to a lack of clarity about the program requirements.
 “Extending Unemployment Insurance Benefits: The Cost of Inaction for Disabled Workers.” (Washington DC: Joint Economic Committee of the U.S. Congress, 2010), available at http://jec.senate.gov/public/?a=Files.Serve&File_id=a0bf909c-eb74-48bd-86fb-3b611694b052.
 Liz Schott and LaDonna Pavetti. “Walking Away From a Win-Win-Win: Subsidized Jobs Slated to End Soon Are Helping Families, Businesses, and Communities Weather the Recession.” (Washington DC: Center for Budget and Policy Priorities, 2010), available at http://www.cbpp.org/cms/index.cfm?fa=view&id=3274.
 Guy Molyneaux. “Key Findings From Survey on Poverty Issues.” (Washington DC: Hart Research Associates, 2010), available at http://halfinten.org/uploads/support_files/Half_in_Ten_Poll_Results.pdf.
 Louis Soares. “The Power of the Education-Industry Partnership: Fostering Innovation in Collaboration Between Community Colleges and Businesses.” (Washington DC: Center for American Progress, 2010), available at http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/10/community_colleges.html.
 Melissa Boteach, Joy Moses, and Shirley Sagawa. “National Service and Youth Unemployment: Strategies for Job Creation Amid Economic Recovery.” (Washington DC: Center for American Progress, 2009), available at http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2009/11/pdf/nation_service.pdf.
 David E. Balducchi, Randall W. Eberts, and Christopher J. O’Leary, “Labor Exchange Policy in the United States,” (Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2004).
 Louis Soares, “Moving from Short-Term Jobs to Long-Term Skills: Priorities for Workforce Investment Act Reauthorization,” (Washington, DC: Center for American Progress, May 2010). available at http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/05/wia_reauthorization.html
 Darrell Issa. “Obama’s Keynesian failures must never be repeated.” (London: The Financial Times, 2011), available at http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/d949c6c8-32fc-11e0-9a61-00144feabdc0.html?ftcamp=rss#axzz1DU99awh0.
 Christina Romer. “Back to a Better Normal: Unemployment and Growth in the Wake of the Great Recession.” (Princeton, NJ: Speech at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, 2010), available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/cea/Back-to-a-Better-Normal.